Medications used for the control of pain can include over-the-counter (OTC) formulations, muscle relaxants, opioids, and neuropathics. All medication treatment plans are designed to reduce your pain and improve your function. Unfortunately, all medications also come with certain risks. Our plan will be to achieve the greatest benefit with the least risk possible.
Different types of medications are used to address different types of pain such as; inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, and musculoskeletal (nociceptive) pain. Most pain syndromes involve a mix of different types of pain. The proper treatment can improve daily function, quality of sleep, and participation in physical therapy and rehabilitation.
Medications are delivered by different routes such as topical, oral, sublingual, buccal, nasal and occasionally by pump directly into the spinal fluid.
- NSAIDs (NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Ibuprofen, Celebrex etc ) are used to treat inflammatory pain of muscles, tendons, and joints. This type of pain is experienced when healing an injury or when arthritis impairs a joint. The primary risks are to your stomach and kidneys.
- Muscle relaxants ( tizantidine, baclofen etc.) can reduce the frequency and intensity of muscle spasm
- Neuropathics are used to treat nerve pain. This is a common cause of chronic spinal pain, pain following a fracture or surgery involving nerves. Sedation is the most common risk.
- Opioids ( Norco, Morphine,Oxycodone, ect) are used for moderate and severe pain unresponsive to other treatments. They nearly always work initially, unfortunately their chronic use is associated with tolerance ( decreased effectiveness) and they sometimes even cause Headaches or widespread pain ( primary hyperalgesia). All opioid medications can cause sedation, constipation, itching, and pain relief. There are many risks associated with this class of medication including overuse, addiction , respiratory depression, death. Opioid medications used in combination with benzodiazepines (such as Valium, temazepam, etc.) and certain muscle relaxants further increase your risk of death.
Here is an example of the type of person this treatment may be able to help.